Bunmei「文明」

Bunmei was an era from 4/28 of 1469 to 7/20 of 1487 (based on the Japanese lunisolar calendar) in the early Sengoku period.

During this era:

Gotsuchi-mikado served as the 103rd emperor.

Ashikaga Yoshimasa served as the eighth shōgun of the Muromachi bakufu from 1449 to 1473.

Ashikaga Yoshihisa served as the ninth shōgun of the Muromachi bakufu from 1473 to 1489.

Key events

In 1471, Rennyo, a monk from the Jōdo sect of Buddhism and eighth head of the Hongan Temple, built a residence for monks in Echizen Province.  Yamana Toyoyuki, the military governor of Hōki Province, was assassinated on Ura Island in a rebellion associated with the Ōnin-Bunmei War.

In 1474, Ikkyū Sōjun, a monk from the Rinzai sect, was appointed as head of the Daitoku Temple in Kyōto.  He contributed to its reconstruction after the Ōnin-Bunmei War.

In 1477, the Ōnin-Bunmei War drew to a close after approximately eleven years of war that devastated much of Kyōto and extended into the surrounding provinces.

In 1482, Ashikaga Yoshimasa commenced construction of the Kanon residence (known as Ginkakuji) of the Jishō Temple, a silver-gilded example of Higashiyama Culture, a style that flourished during the late Muromachi period.

In 1483, Ashikaga Shigeuji and the Muromachi bakufu reached a formal settlement, drawing to a close the Kyōtoku Conflict that had persisted since 1455.

Key battles

In 1470, a succession struggle in the Kyōgoku clan of Ōmi Province known as the Kyōgoku Disturbance (Kyōgoku sōran) commenced upon the death of Kyōgoku Mochikiyo and lasted until his grandson, Kyōgoku Takakiyo, unified the province in 1505.

From 1476 to 1480, a powerful retainer of the Uesugi named Nagao Kageharu led a rebellion against the Uesugi clan who served as the deputy shōgun of the Kantō in an engagement known as the Nagao Kageharu Conflict.

In 1477, the Battle of Egotahara-Numabukuro occurred between Ōta Dōkan and Toshima Yasutsune in the Tama district of Musashi Province. In the end, Yasutsune fled and the Toshima clan extinguished.

In 1478, Mōri Jirō, a kokujin, or local figure of influence, led a major rebellion in Inaba Province known as the First Mōri Jirō Conflict.  This was suppressed in the spring of 1480.  A settlement was reached between Ashikaga Shigeuji, the Koga kubō, or head of the Ashikaga clan in the Kantō based in Koga in Shimōsa Province, and Uesugi Akisada, the Kantō kanrei, or deputy shōgun for the Kantō.  The name of the era for the area governed by the Koga kubō had been called Kyōtoku since the time of the Kyōtoku Conflict, that ran from 1455 to 1483.  The name of the era changed to Bunmei in the year of the settlement between Shigeuji and Akisada, although the conflict continued for three more years.

Notable births

In 1476, Kanō Motonobu, an artist and founder of the Kanō school of painting regarded as the pinnacle of Japanese art practiced for approximately four centuries from the middle of the Muromachi period until the late Edo period

In 1481, Ashikaga Yoshizumi, the eleventh shōgun of the Muromachi bakufu

In 1484, Hosokawa Takakuni, a bushō and adopted son of Hosokawa Masamoto, the deputy shōgun who usurped Ashikaga Yoshiki, the tenth shōgun

Notable deaths

In 1471, Gohanazono – the 102nd emperor

In 1471, Yamana Toyoyuki, the military governor of Hōki Province and eldest son of Yamana Noriyuki; killed in a rebellion on Hakusan island in Hōki

In 1473, Yamana Noriyuki, the military governor of Hōki Province until 1453 when he transferred leadership of the family to his eldest son, Toyoyuki

In 1473, Yamana Sōzen, a shugo daimyō and military governor of Tajima, Bingo, Aki, Iga, and Harima provinces; leader of the Western Army in the Ōnin-Bunmei Conflict from 1467 to 1477

In 1473, Hosokawa Katsumoto, a shugo daimyō and the 16th, 18th, and 21st deputy shōgun of the Muromachi bakufu; leader of the Eastern Army in the Ōnin-Bunmei Conflict from 1467 to 1477

In 1476, Hino Katsumitsu, a noble who succeeded his father as head of the family at the age of six; served under Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, and Ashikaga Yoshihisa; older brother of Hino Tomiko

In 1481, Ichijō Kaneyoshi, a noble and literary scholar who acquired senior court titles including kanpaku, or chief councilor to the emperor

In 1481, Asakura Takakage, a bushō and seventh head of the Asakura clan of Echizen Province, known as an astute military strategist who also enjoyed the cultural arts

In 1481, Ikkyū Sōjun, a monk and poet from the Daitoku temple of the Rinzai sect in Kyōto; may have been an illegitimate son of Gokomatsu – the 100th emperor

In 1486, Ōta Dōkan, a bushō, scholar, and head of house affairs for the Ōgigayatsu-Uesugi clan – the deputy military governors of Musashi Province; assassinated while taking a bath at the residence of Uesugi Sadamasa