Takigawa Kazumasu

滝川一益

Takigawa Clan

Takigawa Kazumasu

Ise Province

Lifespan:  15xx to 9/9 of Tenshō 14 (1586)

Rank:  bushō, daimyō

Title:  Junior Fifth Rank (Lower), Lieutenant of the Left Division, Inspector of the Left Division, Governor of Iyo

Clan:  Takigawa

Bakufu:  Muromachi

Lord:  Rokkaku Sadayori (?) → Oda Nobunaga → Oda Hidenobu → Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Father:  Takigawa Kazukatsu (or Takigawa Sukekiyo)

Siblings:  Takayasu Norikatsu, Kazumasu

Children:  Kazutada, Kazutoki, Tatsumasa, Chibokusai, daughter (wife of Takigawa Katsutoshi), Kyūten Sōtan, daughter (wife of Ujii Sukemoto), daughter (wife of Akiyama Naokuni), Jitokuin (?)

Adopted son:  Tadayuki

Adopted daughter:  Daughter of Takigawa Katsutoshi (or the wife or daughter of Tsuda Hidemasa)

Takigawa Kazumasu served as a bushō and daimyō during the Sengoku and Azuchi-Momoyama periods.  He was a senior retainer of Oda Nobunaga.

Origins

His father, Takigawa Kazukatsu (or Takigawa Sukekiyo) was a kokujin, or provincial landowner, in the Kōka District of Ōmi Province.  There is a theory that these names refer to the same individual, but, in either case, the character of this person is uncertain.  Takayasu Norikatsu has been cited as an older brother, but according to a family lineage he was a cousin of Kazumasu’s father.  Ikeda Tsuneiki is also cited as a cousin.  Nakamura Kazuuji may have originated from the Taki clan, one of the Twenty-One Families of Kōka – local samurai families allied with the Rokkaku clan.  There is a theory this is the same family as Kazumasu.  There is another theory that he was a ninja, but there is no clear substantiation.

In addition to the possibility that he originated from Kōka, there is a theory that he came from Shima Province based on Kazumasu’s role to arrange for Kuki Yoshitaka, a kokujin in Shima, to serve as a navy admiral for Oda Nobunaga.  Under another theory, Kazumasu came from Ise Province based on the fact that his son-in-law, Takigawa Katsutoshi, came from the Kozukuri clan, members of the Kitabatake clan who were the kokushi or governors of Ise and, further, that Kazumasu was in charge of the invasion of Ise over a period of years and, after its subjugation, was awarded expansive landholdings in northern Ise.

Service to the Oda and the invasion of Ise Province

In 1525, Kazumasu was born as the son of Takigawa Kazukatsu (or Takigawa Sukekiyo), but, the details of the first half of his life prior to his service to Oda Nobunaga of Owari Province are uncertain.  Given that his father originated from Kōka, during his youth, he would have served the Rokkaku clan of southern Ōmi.  According to one account, from an early age, he was skilled in use of the arquebus, killed a family member named Takayasu in Kawachi, departed the province, and achieved renown.  Owing to his arquebus skills, Nobunaga brought him into his service.  Another account noted that the Takigawa family was of honorable heritage, but Kazumasu enjoyed gambling, and, after several misdeeds, was ousted from the family and sheltered with an acquaintance in the town of Tsushima in Owari.

The time that Kazumasu entered into service of Oda Nobunaga is unknown, but, according to an authenticated account of Oda Nobunaga known as the Shinchō Kōki, when Nobunaga performed in a dance, Takigawa Sakonshū served in the role of an urchin.  One of Nobunaga’s consorts named Jitokuin was said to be a relative of Kazumasu, but, given that Jitokuin served as the nursemaid of Oda Nobutada who was born in the Kōji era (1555 to 1558), Kazumasu is considered to have been a retainer of Nobunaga around this time.  Jitokuin may have been the daughter of Kazumasu.  Kyūten Sōtan, the fifty-sixth abbot of the Myōshin Temple, was a child of Kazumasu.

In 1560, Kuwana in northern Ise was on the border with Mino Province and could be targeted so Kazumasu recommended to Nobunaga that the Oda garner control of the locale of Nagashima in Kuwana to prepare defenses against the Kitabatake and Seki clans.  With funds from Hattori Tomosada, the lord of Nagashima Castle, a dogō from Ninoue in Owari Province, Kazumasu built Kanie Castle, but, before long, he expelled Tomosada and became the lord of Kanie Castle.  In 1563, he served as the negotiator for an alliance with Matsudaira Ieyasu (later known as Tokugawa Ieyasu) leading to the Kiyosu Alliance.

Kazumasu served in the vanguard of the Oda army for two invasions of Ise Province in 1567 and 1568 that crushed numerous families, particularly among the Forty-Eight Families of Ise.  Operating through Genjōin Shugen (later known as Takigawa Katsutoshi), Kazumasu lured Kizukuri Tomomasa (the younger brother of Kitabatake Tomonori) to support the Oda and, after Tomonori vacated Ōkawachi Castle, was assigned along with Tsuda Kazuyasu (later known as Oda Tadahiro) to take possession of the castle.  After the conflict, Kazumasa was ordered to defend Anotsu, Shibumi, and Kozukuri castles for the Siege of Ōkawachi Castle.  In 1569, Kazumasu was granted five districts in northern Ise where he established his base of operations.  From around 1575, Tsuda Kazuyasu led the military activities of the Kitabatake clan and, in coordination with Kazumasu, eliminated the Echizen Ikkō-ikki and then governed the Uda District of Yamato Province.

Nagashima Ikkō-ikki and the Battle of Ishiyama

In the ninth month of 1570, an uprising against Nobunaga led by followers of the Ishiyama-Hongan Temple triggered the Battle of Ishiyama.  Meanwhile, the Nagashima Ikkō-ikki rebelled all at once.  In the eleventh month, Nobunaga’s younger brother, Oda Nobuoki, was killed at Kokie Castle while Kazumasu holed-up in Kuwana Castle.  Thereafter, while confronting the Nagashima Ikkō-ikki in northern Ise, Kazumasu joined in the defense of Owari and engaged in assorted battles as a member of the reserve corps.

In 1573, Kazumasu participated in the Siege of Ichijōdani Castle which decimated the Asakura clan.  In 1574, when engaged in subduing the Nagashima Ikkō-ikki for the third time, Kazumasu joined Kuki Yoshitaka to lead the naval forces, firing shots from the sea in support of the Oda army.  Owing to these contributions, Nobunaga awarded Kazumasu with Nagashima Castle and governance of five out of eight districts in northern Ise.

In 1575, Kazumasu served in the Battle of Nagashino as the commander-in-chief of the infantry units.  That same year, he attacked the Echizen Ikkō-ikki.  In 1576, he participated in the Battle of Tennōji and the Conquest of Kishū.  In 1578, at the Second Battle of Kizugawaguchi, Kazumasu commanded a white ship to accompany the six black ships commanded by Kuki Yoshitaka.  He also assisted in the construction of steel-plated warships.  At the Siege of Arioka Castle which lasted until the eleventh month of 1579, Kazumasu lured away the general in charge of defending the Jōrōzuke fortress, undermining the defense of Arioka Castle.  On account of these two defeats, the Ishiyama-Hongan Temple struggled to procure provisions and weapons, and, in the fourth month of 1580, the high priest of the Hongan Temple named Kennyo surrendered to Nobunaga.

In 1580, when Hōjō Ujimasa, the lord of Odawara Castle, sent a messenger to Nobunaga, Kazumasu was ordered, along with Takei Sekian and Sakuma Nobumori to serve as a mōshitsugi, or intermediator, with the groups in the Kantō.  Following the ouster this year of Nobumori, Kazumasu served in this role with clans in the Kantō, and, in particular, the Gohōjō.  In 1581, Kazumasu assisted when Ujimasa gave a falcon to Nobunaga as a gift.  He then participated in the Invasion of Iga, attacking from Kōkaguchi.  Also in 1581, the Yōkoku hermitage was opened with his son, Kyūten Sōtan as the founder, at the Myōshin Temple in Kyōto.  After the death of Tsuda Masahide, it was renamed as the Chōkō Temple.

Elimination of the Takeda and subjugation of the Kantō

In 1582, while planning the Conquest of Kōshū, Nobunaga assigned an army to his eldest son, Oda Nobutada, and had him invade Shinano Province.  On 2/12 of Tenshō 10 (1582), Kazumasu deployed and, along with Kawajiri Hidetaka (the chief retainer), became a military commander.  Together with Mori Nagayoshi, they comprised the main force for the invasion.  During the Conquest of Kōshū, Kazumasu achieved valor by cornering Takeda Katsuyori and killing him in the foothills of Mount Tenmoku.  When a messenger from Hōjō Ujimasa paid a visit to Nobunaga in Kai Province, Kazumasu served as the intermediary.

In the aftermath of the war, the remaining territory of the Takeda was allocated among retainers of the Oda.  On 3/23, Kazumasu was granted Kōzuke Province and the Chiisagata and Saku districts in neighboring Shinano Province.  Kazumasu was ordered to serve as the intermediator for Kantō.  Military accounts written in later eras indicate he received the title of deputy shōgun of Kantō, but this role was specific to the Muromachi bakufu and conflicts with the fact that, as of this time, Nobunaga had already ousted Ashikaga Yoshiaki (the fifteenth and final shōgun of the Muromachi bakufu).  Moreover, the title does not appear in sources from that actual period so it may have been used in error with respect to Kazumasu.  Nevertheless, even more than territory, Kazumasu sought coveted eggplant-colored tea utensils, and, after failing to procure them, expressed his regret in a letter.  He did, however, receive a renowned horse and short-sword from Nobunaga and, thereafter, was assigned the role as intermediator for the governance of Kantō.  On 3/29, Kawajiri Hidetaka was awarded Kai Province (excluding the Kawachi territory controlled by the Anayama clan) and the Suwa District in Shinano, Mori Nagayoshi received the four districts in Kawanakajima in Shinano, Mōri Nagahide received the Ina District in Shinano, and Kiso Yoshimasa received recognition of his rights to Kisodani along with the Azumi and Tsukama districts in Shinano.

Thereafter, Kazumasu entered Minowa and Maebashi castles in Kōzuke from which to work to subdue the Kantō.  Kazumasu’s nephew, Takigawa Kazushige, entered Numata Castle while Tsuda Hidemasa entered Matsuida Castle in Seimō and Dōke Masahide entered Komoro Castle in the Saku District of Shinano.  With respect to the governance of his new territory, Kazumasu conveyed to the kokujin, or provincial landowners, that he would recognize the rights to their landholdings so neighboring lords came, accompanied by individuals to tender as hostages, to serve under Kazumasu.  At this time, Sano Fusatsuna and Kanai Hidekage became his close associates, while Kazumasu established contacts with key persons in the Kantō (Hōjō Ujimasa and his son, Hōjō Ujinao, along with Satake Yoshishige and Satomi Yoshinari) in addition to Date Terumune and Ashina Moritaka of Mutsu Province.  He appeared to wield a lot of influence, such as by having Hōjō Ujimasa return Gion Castle (also known as Oyama Castle) in Shimotsuke to Oyama Hidetsuna, the lord of Moto Castle.  Moreover, after being ousted by the Hōjō from Ōda Castle, Ōta Sukemasa and Kajiwara Masakage (father and son who came under the protection of the Satake clan) sought to become immediate followers of Nobunaga on the condition that they fall under the command of Kazumasu.  Their proposal was accepted so they waited upon Kazumasu.  However, Chiba Kunitane and Takeda Toyonobu refused to serve, while there were no communications from Kazumasa to Ashikaga Yoshiuji (the fifth Koga kubō) or to his retainer, Yanada Harusuke.  It is likely that Kazumasu was vexed over how to contend with the role of the Kantō kubō under the Muromachi bakufu.

Early in the fifth month of the same year, Kazumasu gather the lords of numerous castles to Maebashi Castle (also known as Mayabashi Castle) to host a performance.  Accompanied by his eldest and second sons, Kazumasu himself performed a key role. On 5/23, upon order of Kazumasa, Takagawa Kazushige, the lord of Numata Castle, led soldiers over the Mikuni Pass, but were defeated in a confrontation against Nagao Iga-no-kami (the lord of Shimizu Castle) and Kuribayashi Masayori (the lord of Kabanosawa Castle) who were aligned with Uesugi Kagekatsu.

Honnō Temple Incident

On 6/2 of Tenshō 10 (1582), Nobunaga unexpectedly died in the Honnō Temple Incident, a coup d’état led by one of his most senior retainers, Akechi Mitsuhide.  Upon learning of the incident, in a letter dated 6/11, Hōjō Ujimasa informed Kazumasu that he received the news from Kanō Ichian of Fukaya, and reaffirmed his intention to maintain their cooperative relationship.  In fact, however, on 6/12, he mobilized forces in his territory and decided for the Hōjō clan to attack Kōzuke Province.

Kazumasu learned of the news on 6/7, five days after the incident.  On 6/10, Kazumasu overcame the opposition of his senior retainers, summoned commanders from Kōzuke, and announced the catastrophic news, stating that we need to hurriedly return to Kyōto and is environs to protect Oda Nobukatsu and Oda Nobutaka and fight against Mitsuhide out of honor to our fallen lord.  You can battle against anyone who considers taking advantage of this opportunity to take my head as a gift to the Hōjō in surrender.  Whether or not it is disadvantageous to a final showdown with the Hōjō forces, I plan to head toward Kyōto.

On 6/11, Kazumasu engaged in a performance at the Chōshō Temple, but the outermost enclosure of the temple was reinforced with two lines of secure bamboo fences.  A rumor circulated among retainers of Hōjō Takahiro of a plot to eliminate the Jōshū (Kōzuke) group.

Meanwhile, when Tomioka Hidetaka of Koizumi Castle in Kōzuke inquired as to the welfare of Nobunaga, Kazumasu noted in a letter dated 6/12 that, with respect to the situation in Kyōto, he had not heard any news since the death of Nobunaga and there were no notable changes.  Among the senior commanders in Kōzuke, it appears that Kazumasu communicated the facts he acquired only to Hōjō Takahiro and other key bushō.  Upon hearing the news concerning Nobunaga, Fujita Nobuyoshi, the lord of Numasu Castle, rebelled and attacked Numata Castle, but, upon learning of these developments from Takigawa Masushige, the lord of Numata Castle, Kazumasu rushed with an army of 20,000 troops (including Takigawa Buzen from Nitta, the Obata, the Annaka, the Wada, the Kuragano, the Yura, the Nagao of Tatebayashi, and the Naitō of Minowa) and suppressed the attacking forces at the Battle of Numata Castle.

Former retainers of the Takeda family launched an uprising in the former territory of the Takeda and, on 6/18, Mori Nagayoshi from northern Shinano abandoned Kaizu Castle (later known as Matsushiro Castle) while Mōri Nagahide in southern Shinano left Ina and Kawajiri Hidetaka of Kai Province was killed by former retainers of the Takeda.

Battle of Kannagawa and return to Ise Province

On 6/16, the Hōjō sought to take advantage of the demise of Nobunaga by attacking Kuragano in Kōzuke with an army of 56,000 men led by Hōjō Ujinao of Odawara Castle (the eldest son and designated heir of Ujimasa), Hōjō Ujikuni (the lord of Hachigata Castle), Hōjō Ujimasa, Hōjō Ujiteru, and Hōjō Ujinori.

Kazumasu positioned Takigawa Tadayuki in Mayabashi Castle (later known as Maebashi Castle), along with Tsuda Hidemasa and Inada Kuzō and 1,500 mounted soldiers in Matsuida Castle.  He then led 18,000 troops to set-up a base in Wada from which to intercept the Hōjō forces.  In the initial clash on 6/18, the Takigawa forces prevailed, but, on 6/19, the Hōjō gained the upper hand.  At this time, 500 mounted soldiers from the Shinooka, Tsuda, Ōta, and Kurita held their ground and perished in battle, and, among the Jōshū (Kōzuke) group, Kibe Sadatomo, the sons of Kuragano Hidekage (Gorōta, Rokuyata) were killed in action at the Battle of Kannagawa.

That same evening, Kazumasu passed through Kuragano Castle and returned to Mayabashi.  He prayed for the fallen at the Chōshō Temple below the castle.  On 6/20, returned the second son of Hōjō Takahiro who had been held as a hostage, and, that same evening, gathered members of the Jōshū group in Minowa Castle for a departing banquet.  Kazumasu gave them assorted gifts including long swords, gold and silver, and other treasured items and, later that evening, departed Minowa Castle.

Kazumasu went to Matsuida Castle defended by Tsuda Hidemasa and added 1,5000 mounted soldiers from the garrison to form a contigent of 2,000 soldiers.  This army then traversed the Usui Pass and, on 6/21, entered Komoro Castle defended by Dōke Masahide.  At this time, the forces were accompanied by hostages from the Saku and Chiisagata districts of Shinano including Yoda Yasukuni and the elderly mother of Sanada Masayuki named Kyōunin.  Kazumasu himself planned to retreat to his main base at Nagashima in Ise, but Kiso Yoshimasa, a daimyō in the Kiso District, refused passage by Kazumasu.  In exchange for passage, Kazumasu offered to tender the hostages from the Saku and Chiisagata districts whereupon Yoshimasa consented.

On 6/27, Kazumasu transferred Komoro Castle to Yoda Nobushige and departed.  On 6/28, he transferred the hostages at Fukushima Castle, the base of Yoshimasa, and finally entered Mino Province under the control of the Oda.  The hostages were later transferred to Tokugawa Ieyasu.   After paying a courtesy visit to Sanpōshi (Oda Hidenobu) at Kiyosu, and, on 7/1, returned to Ise.  While Kazumasu was en route to Ise, the Kiyosu Conference was held on 6/27, after which Kazumasu’s standing in the Oda family fell considerably.  Based on a letter dated 6/26 in which Hideyoshi requested Kazumasu to ally with Ieyasu to oppose the Hōjō army, it is considered that Kazumasu could not attend the Kiyosu Conference on account of his battles against the Hōjō forces, but it is also possible that he was not invited.

Battle of Shizugatake and entering the priesthood

After the Kiyosu Conference, Nobunaga’s lineal grandson, Sanpōshi, became the successor to the Oda clan, but, during this time, Kazumasu returned to Ise.  Having lost the Kantō, his position became vulnerable so, in an effort to redeem himself, he requested the remaining territory of the Oda family be re-distributed, but senior retainers including Hashiba Hideyoshi participating in the Kiyosu Conference rejected the request on the grounds that it would overturn the decisions made at the conference.  Thereafter, Nobunaga’s third son, Oda Nobutaka, was dissatisfied with the outcome of the conference, escalating into a conflict between Hideyoshi (who backed Sanpōshi) and Shibata Katsuie (who supported Nobutaka).  On New Year’s Day in Tenshō 11 (1583), Kazumasu sided with Katsuie at the onset of hostilities with Hideyoshi.  Kazumasu attacked multiple castles in northern Ise and held-out until the third month against attacks from an army of nearly 70,000 troops fighting for Hideyoshi.  And, even after Katsuie marched south, Kazumasa managed to pin-down nearly 20,000 forces led by Oda Nobukatsu and Gamō Ujisato while defending his base at Nagashima Castle in the Kuwana District of Ise.  However, after a defeat at the Battle of Shizugatake, on 4/23, Katsuie took his own life at Kita-no-shō and, on 4/29, Nobutaka did the same, leaving Kazumasu isolated.  Holed-up in Nagashima Castle, Kazumasa continued a solitary fight, but, by the seventh month, was forced to surrender.  Following the seizure of all of his landholdings, Kazumasu went to the Myōshin Temple in Kyōto, underwent the rites of tonsure, presented a painting from Asayama Nichijō to Hideyoshi, and, through the assistance of Niwa Nagahide, accepted confinement in Echizen Province.  Later, Kazumasu’s former landholdings in Ise were taken over by Nobunaga’s second son, Oda Nobukatsu.

Battle of Komaki-Nagakute and the latter years

In 1584, Oda Nobukatsu combined with Tokugawa Ieyasu in opposition to Hideyoshi, leading to the Battle of Komaki-Nagakute.  Kazumasu’s son-in-law, Takigawa Katsutoshi, served as the chief retainer of Nobukatsu, but Kazumasu was called out of retirement by Hideyoshi and, this time, he sided with Hideyoshi.  In this battle, Kazumasu lured away Kuki Yoshitaska and Maeda Nagasada from the side of Nobukatsu, and, on 6/16, 3,000 troops went from the Shiroko Inlet in Ise to the Kanie Inlet in Owari.  These forces ousted Sakuma Nobutoki (who was aligned with Nobukatsu) from Kanie Castle which he had earlier siezed, and, further, occupied Shimoichiba and Maeda castles.  At this time. Kanie Castle faced the sea and was in a critical location between Nagashima Castle (held by Oda Nobukatsu) and Kiyosu Castle (held by Tokugawa Ieyasu).

Next, the forces attacked Ōno Castle defended by Yamaguchi Shigemasa, but failed to topple the base, while Shimoichiba and Maeda castles were recaptured by the main contingent under Ieyasu and Nobukatsu while Kanie Castle was surrounded in an event known as the Siege of Kanie Castle.  Kazumasu held-out for over two weeks including negotiations to turn-over the castle, but, after having exhausted their resources, on 7/3, vacated the site.  During the withdrawal, the forces were attacked, during which Maeda Nagasada was killed.  Kazumasu narrowly escaped by boat and fled to Ise.  Hideyoshi amassed 62,000 soldiers in Ise including Hashiba Hidenaga, Niwa Nagahide, and Hori Hidemasa and planned an all-out attack on from the western side of Owari on 7/15, but did not arrive on time so it was canceled.

On 7/12, based on an earlier promise, Hideyoshi awarded a fief of 12,000 koku to Kazumasu’s second son, Takigawa Kazutoki, while Kazumasu himself received a fief of 3,000 koku.  His eldest son, Takigawa Kazutada was held responsible for the defeat, ousted, and turned-over to the custody of Hashiba Hidenaga.  In the eleventh month of 1584, Takigawa Katsutoshi, via Kazumasu, approached Hideyoshi and reconciled with Nobukatsu.

Kazumasu, together with Sano Fusatsuna and Yamagami Dōkyū, managed diplomacy with the eastern provinces for Hideyoshi and, a reply sent from Hideyoshi to Satake Yoshishige in the sixth month of 1584 (while Yoshishige was participating in the Battle of Numajiri) and, a letter to Kajiwara Masakage in the eleventh month of 1585 give advance notice of the Expedition of Odawara by Hideyoshi.  Their actions are considered to later have been disadvantageous to the Hōjō clan.

Kazumasu died on 9/9 of Tenshō 14 (1586) at the age of sixty-two.

Descendants

Kazumasu’s children included Kazutada as his eldest son and Kazutoki as his second son and heir, followed by Tatsumasa, Chibokusai, Kyūten Sōtan and several daughters and adopted children.  Family members included Takigawa Masuuji and Takigawa Masushige, while Maeda Toshimasu was one of their sons, but their relationships to Kazumasu are uncertain.

Kazutada was operating with his father but, in 1584, owing to errors made at the Siege of Kanie Castle prior to the Battle of Komaki-Nagakute, he was criticized by Hideyoshi and ousted.  Thereafter, he lived without serving again.  However, Kazutada’s grandson, Takigawa Kazuaki, was permitted to serve in the role of a hatamoto, or direct retainer of the shōgun in the Edo period.

Kazutoki inherited the headship of the family and, as a retainer of the Toyotomi, was granted a fief of 12,000 koku.  Later, however, he was invited to serve Tokugawa Ieyasu whereupon he received an increase to his fief of 2,000 koku, making a total of 14,000 koku and became a daimyō.  Nevertheless, after Kazutoki died in 1603, the fief of 12,000 koku was siezed by the Toyotomi, making his heir a hatamoto.  Meanwhile, his eldest son, Takugawa Kazunori was still immature so Takigawa Kazuatsu (the son of Kazutada) who served the Nakamura clan (head of the Yonago domain) was called to served as his representative.  Thereafter, the family and a fief of 750 koku were returned to Kazunori and the family continued as the main branch of the Takigawa.

After the Battle of Sekigahara, Kazuatsu received Chōshūin (the daughter of Sanada Masayuki) as his formal wife.  After succeeding to the Takigawa family in his capacity as the representative of Kazunori, Kazuatsu made contributions as a scout and messenger in the Siege of Ōsaka.  Then, Kazunori petitioned to have the headship of the clan assigned to himself and, based on a decision by the Edo bakufu, the fief of 750 koku was returned to Kazunori while Kazuatsu stood-up a new branch of the family as a hatamoto with a fief of 1,000 koku.  Kazuatsu continued to serve in his role as a scout and messenger.  Later, Kazuatsu adopted the daughter of Sanada Nobushige.  He was then censored for having her wed Gamō Satonobu, the chief retainer of the Gamō family in the Iyo-Matsuyama domain for which he was removed from his position.  Later, Kazuatsu’s son, Kazuaki received a fief of 300 hyō (bales of rice) from the bakufu and was allowed to serve as a hatamoto.

Kazumasu’s third son, Tatsumasa, was commonly known either as Takigawa Tanba or Takigawa Izumo.  Initially, he served Oda Nobukane, but, later, after wandering with Asano Nagamasa, Ishida Mitsunari, and Kobayakawa Hideaki, he received a fief of 2,000 koku in service of Iekda Terumasa, the lord of the Himeji domain.  For his contributions at the Siege of Ōsaka, he received an increase to his fief of 1,000 koku, yielding a total fief of 3,000 koku.  His descendants accompanied the Ikeda clan upon their transfer and served the Bizen-Okayama domain.

Kazumasu’s fourth son, Chibokusai, served the Ikeda clan of the Inaba-Tottori domain while every one of his descendants served the Ikeda clan in Okayama and Tottori.  Ikeda Tsunetoshi, the grandfather of Ikeda Terumasa who was the founder of the Ikeda clan who became an early modern daimyō, was adopted from the Takigawa family.  Ikeda Tsuneoki, teh father of Terumasa who was active in the same era as Kazumasa, was a cousin of Kazumasu.  Meanwhile, Takigawa Kazumune (Tatsumasa’s grandson) was the husband of Rokuhime, the daughter of Ikeda Mitsumasa, the first head of the Okayama domain.  Later, he engaged in the practice of medicine while the Takigawa family who continued the practice of medicine were descendants of Chibokusai.

Kazumasu’s son-in-law, Takigawa Katsutoshi, became the head of the Katano domain, but, in the era of his son, Takigawa Masatoshi, owing to his frail health, his fief was reduced and he became a hatamoto.  Based on the family lineage, Takigawa Tomotaka served as an auditor toward the end of the Edo period, and, in 1868, served in the vanguard at the Battle of Toba-Fushimi, while Takigawa Tomoyasu (Jūtarō) served in the Boshin War (1868 to 1869) as a member of an elite army corps for the Edo bakufu.  In the era of his younger brother, Takigawa Tomokazu, the character in the Takigawa name changed and continues to the present day.

Tsuda Hidemasa was a son-in-law, having wed an adopted daughter of Kazumasu (whose natural father may have been Takaigawa Katsutoshi).  Hidemasa was a member of the Oda family and served as a member of the cavalry under Kazumasu.  His descendants became high-ranking hatamoto of the Edo bakufu.

Takaigawa Tadayuki (the son of Kimata Tadazumi who was the chief retainer of Kazumasa) received the Takigawa surname likely through adoption.  Tadayuki’s descendants received a fief of 6,000 koku while serving in important roles for the Owari domain.

Character and anecdotes

In his youth, Kazumasu went to Sakai in Kawachi Province to learn how to manufacture and shoot arquebuses, and after displaying his expert marksmanship, he was invited by Nobunaga to serve him.

Kazumasu served as a commander of Ise naval forces and joined Kuki Yoshitaka in many naval battles including to suppress the Nagashima Ikkō-ikki and for the Siege of Kanie Castle.

In the Second Battle of Kizugawaguchi, Kazumasu participated in a large white warship known as an Atakubune, but it is not certain whether this vessel was equipped with steel-plated siding.

The sword that Kazumasu received from Nobunaga as recognition for his contributions in eliminating the Takeda still exists.  This invaluable sword was manufactured in the early Kamakura period and later decorated in hallmarks distinctive to the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

After going blind and entering the priesthood, Kazumasu returned from a temple in Kyōto to the Ōno District of Echizen.  While en route, Kazumasu stopped in Ōtaki-Imadate in Echizen.  As Kazumasu traversed the mountain heading to the Ōno District, he was attacked by villagers from Ōtaki (local forces primairly from the Ōtaki Shrine under the command of Heisenji) who were resentful toward the Takigawa army for burning to death individuals at the time of Nobunaga’s attack on the Echizen Ikkō-ikki.  According to locals in Ōtaki, he was slaughtered and his remains interred at the Reisen Temple in Ajimano.  Kazumasu’s armor is said to be at the Ōtaki Shrine, but this story may be confused with a similar one involving Maeba Yoshitsugu, who was also a retainer of Nobunaga, lost his sight in his latter years, and, in 1574, was killed by ikki forces.