Hori Tsuruchiyo served as a daimyō in the early Edo period. He was the head of the Zaōdō domain in Echigo Province. Tsuruchiyo was the second son of Hori Hideharu and the younger brother of Hori Tadatoshi.
Tsuruchiyo was adopted by his uncle, Hori Chikayoshi. In 1598, after the Uesugi family was transferred by the Toyotomi administration to Aizu in Mutsu Province, Chikayoshi was assigned to Echigo to serve as the lord of Zaōdō Castle with a fief of 40,000 koku. In 1600, the Hori family sided with the Eastern Army at the Battle of Sekigahara, so, after the war, their rights to their former territory were recognized by and the Zaōdō domain founded.
In 1602, Chikayoshi had a falling out with Hideharu and Hori Naomasa whereupon, on the pretext of illness, he assigned headship of the family to Tsuruchiyo and ostensibly retired. In fact, he fled to Shiomotsuke Province to serve as the head of the Mooka domain. In 1606, however, Tsuruchiyo died prematurely at the age of nine. He did not have an heir so the Zaōdō domain of 30,000 koku was absorbed by the Sakato domain led by Tsuruchiyo’s guardian, Hori Naoyori.
Later, in 1610, Hori Tadatoshi of the main branch of the Hori family was removed from his position after failing to resolve a conflict between clan elders – Naoyori and Hori Naokiyo. There is a theory that the internal conflict was used as a means to remove him as a daimyō who favored the Toyotomi family. After Matsudaira Tadateru (the sixth son of Tokugawa Ieyasu) was assigned to the Takada domain in Echigo, Zaōdō Castle came under his governance.
In 1616, owing to missteps at the Siege of Ōsaka, Tadateru was removed from his position while Naoyori, one of the ringleaders of the internal conflict that occurred in 1610, entered Zaōdō with a fief of 80,000 koku. However, Zaōdō Castle was not well-positioned to prevent flooding from the Shinano River that ran along the south of the castle, so Naoyori built Nagaoka Castle which was a bit farther away from the river, moved to the town below the castle, and founded the Echigo-Nagaoka domain, while the Zaōdō domain ended after just two generations.