Lifespan: 5/3 of Eiroku 12 (1569) to 9/29 of Kanei 19 (1642)
Rank: bushō, daimyō
Title: Junior Fifth Rank (Lower), Chief Diplomat, Junior Fourth rank (Lower), Chamberlain, Junior Third Rank (posthumous)
Domain: Tanba-Fukuchiyama → Chikugo-Kurume
Lord: Watarase Shigeaki → Toyotomi Hideyoshi → Tokugawa Ieyasu → Tokugawa Hidetada → Tokugawa Iemitsu
Father: Arima Noriyori
Mother: Shin, (daughter of Bessho Tadaharu)
Siblings: Noriuji, Toyouji, Noritsugu, Toyonaga, sister (wife of Arima Shigeyori), sister (formal wife of Watarse Shigeaki), sister (fromal wife of Akamatsu Ujimitsu), sister (wife of a member of the Nakayama clan)
Wife: [Formal] Renhime (adopted daughter of Tokugawa Ieyasu and natural daughter of Matsudaira Yasunao)
Children: Tadayori, Nobukata, Yoritsugu, daughter (formal wife of Torii Tadafusa), daughter (formal wife of Koide Yoshishige), daughter (wife of a member of the Tsuchida clan), daughter (formal wife of Mizuno Morinobu)
Adopted Children: Daughter (wife of Takebe Mitsushige and natural daughter of Arima Noriuji)
Arima Toyouji served as a bushō and daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and early Edo periods. Toyouji served as the lord of the Fukuchiyama domain in Tanba Province, and, later as the first lord of the Kurume domain in Chikugo Province. He was the second head of the Arima family in the Kurume domain.
In 1569, Toyouji was born as the second son of Arima Noriyori, a member of the Settsu-Arima clan, at Mitsuta Castle in Miki in Harima Province. The Settsu-Arima were an illegitimate branch of the Akamatsu clan and also referred to as the Arima-Akamatsu family. In the Muromachi period, the family adopted the surname of Arima based on the place name of their base in the Arima District of Settsu Province. Toyouji’s family was a member of the Settsu-Arima clan and his grandfather, Arima Shigenori, advanced into Miki. Shigenori’s formal wife originated from the Hosokawa-Keichō family, the deputy shōgun family of the Muromachi bakufu. As the grandson of Hosokawa Sumimoto, Toyouji carried a high-ranking bloodline.
From his youth, Toyouji followed his father to numerous battles, but, in the Arima family, his older brother, Arima Noriuji, was the designated successor so Toyouji served as the chief retainer for Watarase Shigeaki, the husband of his elder sister. In 1592, during the deployment to the Korean Peninsula for the Bunroku Campaign, Toyouji led 200 soldiers and was stationed at Nagoya Castle.
In the sixth month of 1594, Toyouji was conferred the title of Junior Fifth Rank (Lower) and Chief Diplomat.
In 1595, after Watarase Shigeaki was found complicit in the Hidetsugu Incident, removed from his position and forced to commit seppuku, upon orders of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Toyouji took-over all of his landholdings and retainers. From the eighth month, he entered into service on behalf of Hideyoshi as a daimyō with a fief of 30,000 koku in Yokosuka in Tōtōmi Province.
After the death of Hideyoshi in the eighth month of 1598, Toyouji and his father, Noriyori, approached Tokugawa Ieyasu and, in the first month of 1599, upon orders of Ieyasu, were assigned to guard Yodo Castle in the Kuse District of Yamashiro Province. Toyouji became a member of the otogishū, the personal retinue of Ieyasu, and, in the sixth month of 1600, wed the adopted daughter of Ieyasu, Renhime.
In the ninth month of 1600, Toyouji served in the Eastern Army at the Battle of Sekigahara, participating in an attack against Gifu Castle in Mino Province and serving in the rear guard at the main battle of Sekigahara. In recognition of the contributions made by Toyouji and his father, on 12/13 of Keichō 5 (1600), Ieyasu granted Noriyori a fief of 20,000 koku in their original location in Sanda in the Arima District of Settsu, and further increased Toyouji’s landholdings by 60,000 koku, transferring him to Fukuchiyama in Tanba Province to the north of Kyōto.
In 1602, after the death of Noriyori, in the eighth month, Toyouji inherited his father’s fief of 20,000 koku in Sanda, possessing total landholdings of 80,000 koku. As the first lord of the Fukuchiyama domain, Toyouji is known for having built the town of Fukuchiyama.
From 1614, Toyouji served in the Siege of Ōsaka to fight for the Tokugawa clan.
On 12/8 of Genna 6 (1620), Toyouji was transferred to Kurume in Chikugo Province in Kyūshū with a fief of 210,000 koku, becoming a daimyō in charge of a province. On 3/18 of Genna 7 (1621), he entered into Kurume for his new assignment. Under the governance of the prior lords, the Tanaka clan, Kurume Castle had been destroyed in accordance with orders issued in 1615 by the Edo bakufu permitting only one castle per province. Commencing his governance of the province, Toyouji endeavored to rebuild Kurume Castle near the convergence of the Chikugo and Hōman rivers and to develop the town below. For Kurume Castle, Toyouji reused materials from other abandoned sites including Enokitsu and Fukushima castles. That same year, he moved the Zuigan Temple from Fukuchiyama in Tanba to Kurume and constructed the Bairin Temple.
On 8/19 of Kanei 3 (1626), Toyouji was promoted to Junior Fourth Rank (Lower) and Chief Diplomat. On 7/16 of Kanei 11 (1634) he received the additional title of Chamberlain.
Upon the outbreak of the Shimabara Rebellion in the eleventh month of 1637, Toyouji was located in Edo, but, despite his advanced age, he deployed to Shimabara. A total of 6,300 soldiers from the Kurume domain deployed to subdue this rebellion, resulting in 173 deaths in battle and 1,412 wounded.
On 8/29 of Kanei 19 (1642), Toyouji died at the age of seventy-four. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Arima Tadayori. After the death of Toyouji, two of his attendants martyred themselves and were later buried alongside him. Following the construction of the Sasayama Shrine in Meiji 10 (1878), Toyouji was enshrined. On 11/15 of Taishō 5 (1916), he received the posthumous title of Junior Third Rank.
Anecdotes and character
Toyouji enjoyed the tea ceremony and was one of the Seven Disciples of Sen no Rikyū, the renowned tea master.
From an early age, Toyouji was a devout believer of Zen Buddhism and also studied Confucianism. There are stories of his modest nature.
During the rupture of the Hongan Temple between east and west factions, Toyouji permitted monks in the domain to freely choose which side to join. Later, however, in 1637, he changed his position by rejecting the east faction known as the Higashi-Hongan Temple. This was because influential persons in the bakufu were strongly opposed to intervention in the affairs of the domain by demanding that monks in the domain affiliate with the Higashi-Hongan Temple. Meanwhile, Toyouji’s son, Tadayori, in his role as the second lord of the domain, changed the policy by rejecting the western faction known as the Nishi-Hongan Temple.
Toyouji was knowledgeable in regard to engineering and construction. In 1606, he had a role in building the inner citadel at Edo Castle, in 1607, the construction of Sunpu Castle, in 1611, the Imperial Palace, and, in 1618, renovations to Ōsaka Castle. These activities pressured domain finances. After transferring to Kurume, in addition to the cost of building the castle and the town below, he was burdened by the Shimabara Rebellion. While seeking to increase revenues, he strove to garner the understanding of the local residents.
To increase the collections of the Kurume domain, Toyouji set the standard for the annual tribute at 1.5 times the value of the territory, translating to a basis of 320,000 koku. He adopted the same policy in Yokosuka and Fukuchiyama for which he was severely criticized.
Toyouji rose in stature from the position as a chief retainer to the husband of his older sister to a daimyō commanding a fief of 210,000 koku. In the process, he acquired a band of retainers from assorted backgrounds. This included the Yokosuka group from the Watarese family, the Bairin group inherited from his father’s domain in Sanda, the Tanba group from Fukuchiyama, as well as new retainers from Kurume in Chikugo. In later years, however, these factions gave rise to political strife within the Kurume domain.