Asakura Kageyoshi served as a retainer of the Asakura clan of Echizen Province. He may have been related to Asakura Kagefuyu, a governor of the Tsuruga District and holder of the Court title of Assistant Officer of Palace Repairs. In 1568, Ashikaga Yoshiaki visited the residence of Asakura Yoshikage. Kageyoshi ranked sixth in order of the nineteen members of the clan who received Yoshiaki, sowing that he was relatively close to Yoshikage in terms of lineage.
After the demise of the Asakura clan, many of the surviving members became retainers of the Oda. Others were eliminated in conflict with the monks from the Ikkō sect or joined their cause. Kageyoshi fled to Echigo Province and, under the protection of Uesugi Kenshin, devised plans for a revival of the Asakura clan. Kageyoshi entered into a pact with Kenshin ensuring Kageyoshi a castle in Echizen if he supported a march by the Uesugi to Kyōto. However, these plans quickly faded upon the death of Kenshin in 1578. Kageyoshi’s whereabouts became unknown thereafter.