Lifespan: Kōji 1 (1555) to 5/13 of Kanei 12 (1635)
Other Names: Senpukumaru (childhood), Hikobei, Hikoshirō, Taitō (common)
Title: Junior Fifth Rank (Lower), Tachihaki-senjō
Bakufu: Edo – rōjū (highest administrative organ of the Edo bakufu)
Domain: lord of Tōtōmi-Kakegawa domain and Kii-Tanabe domain
Lord: Tokugawa Ieyasu → Tokugawa Yorinobu
Father: Andō Motoyoshi
Siblings: Naotsugu, Shigenobu, Tsugumoto
Wife: [Formal] Daughter of Nakane Suke-emon, [Second] Daughter of Honda Nobutoshi
Children: Shigeyoshi, Naoharu, sister (wife of Mukuhara Masanaga), sister (formal wife of Kagatsume Tadasumi)
Andō Naotsugu served as a bushō from the Sengoku to early Edo periods. Naotsugu served as the first lord of the Kii-Tanabe domain. From 1600 to 1616, he served as a member of the highest organ of the Edo bakufu known as the rōjū comprised of hereditary retainers. Naotsugu is included among the Twenty-Eight Divine Generals of the Tokugawa enshrined at the Nikkō-Tōshō Shrine in the northern Kantō Region.
Naotsugu was born as the eldest son of Andō Motoyoshi. From an early age, he served Tokugawa Ieyasu. In 1570, he had his first experience in war at the Battle of Anegawa against the allied forces of the Azai and Asakura. He also served in the Battle of Nagashino in 1575.
Beginning in 1584, at the Battle of Komaki-Nagakute, he killed enemy commanders including Ikeda Tsuneoki and Mori Nagayoshi for which he received a bow a from Ieyasu. In 1590, after Ieyasu moved to the Kantō, Naotsugu was granted landholdings of 1,000 koku. In 1600, at the Battle of Sekigahara, Naotsugu served as a messenger for Ieyasu, and, in 1603, participated in the event for the Imperial proclamation of Ieyasu as the first shōgun of the Edo bakufu. In the first month of 1605, he was further granted landholdings of 2,300 koku in Musashi Province. Together with Honda Masazumi and Naruse Masanari, Naotsugu served as a close associate of Ieyasu to administer affairs during the early period of the Edo bakufu.
In 1610, upon orders of Ieyasu, Naotsugu was appointed as the chief retainer of Tokugawa Yorinobu, the first lord of the Kii-Wakayama domain. Thereafter, as an associate of the retired Ieyasu, he participated in the Suruga administration and as a guardian for Ōsuka Tadatsugu (Sakakibara Tadatsugu) the lord of the Yokosuka domain in Tōtōmi Province. From 1614, at the Siege of Ōsaka, he led forces into battle in lieu of the young Yorinobu. As an elder in Suruga, he joined with Naruse Masanari in war councils, and, in addition to his own domain, oversaw numerous daimyō. In 1615, during the Summer Campaign of the Siege of Ōsaka, his eldest son, Andō Shigeyoshi, was killed in action.
In 1617, Naotsugu became the lord of Kakegawa Castle in Tōtōmi. On 7/19 of Genna 5 (1619), after Yorinobu to Wakayama Castle in Kii, Naotsugu followed in his capacity as a tsukegarō, or relative of the shōgun family appointed to serve as a chief retainer for the Kishū domain. He was awarded landholdings of 38,000 koku at Tanabe Castle in Kii. Naotsugu was deeply trusted by Yorinobu and, later, he said “I was able to become a daimyō because of Naotsugu.”
On 5/13 of Kanei 12 (1635), Naotsugu died at the age of eighty-one.
At the Summer Campaign of the Siege of Ōsaka, the death in battle of Naotsugu’s lineal heir, Shigeyoshi, left the army in disarray. The soldiers attempted to cover his remains but Naotsugu observed him from atop his horse and said, “You can feed his remains to the dogs” without looking further while instead he focused on regrouping the forces. The men then quickly reconstituted their formation. After the battle, Naotsugu deeply mourned the loss of Shigeyoshi. On one occasion, when Ieyasu was secretly discussing these plans with senior commanders, Naotsugu overheard the discussion from an adjacent room. In anticipation of orders to go into battle, he quietly prepared for the deployment. In the spring of 1615, after Ieyasu gave orders to return to battle, Naotsugu was the first to arrive for Ieyasu. Ieyasu praised Naotsugu for preparing and being the first to come, but Naotsugu revealed to Ieyasu that he had overheard the secret meeting and advised his lord “In the future, when conducting secret meetings, you should open the sliding doors and sit where you can immediately see into the distance.”
After the Winter Campaign of the Siege of Ōsaka, Ieyasu considered a second punitive expedition to Ōsaka, but that was a secret known only by some of his senior commanders.
While his peers were promoted to the status of daimyō with fiefs of 10,000 koku, Naotsugu remained with 5,000 koku. Naotsugu, however, did not complain and faithfully obeyed Ieyasu. Later, after Ieyasu heard from Naruse Masanari that, despite having received no increases, Naotsugu did not complain, Ieyasu recognized Naotsugu’s sincerity, granting him an increase of 5,000 koku and raising his status to the level of a daimyō, and, awarded him 50,000 koku to cover rice taxes for ten years.
Around the time when Honda Masazumi wielded his most authority under Ieyasu and Hidetada, Naotsugu predicted that “At some point, Masazumi will be removed from his position.” Thereafter, when Masazumi received an increase to his fief, Naotsugu simply said “Let’s see what happens.” Masazumi, however, received a significant increase to the Utsunomiya domain. Many people thought that Naotsugu’s prediction was wrong, but Naotsugu said “The decimation of Masazumi is coming ever closer.” When asked for his reasoning, Naotsugu said “When Masazumi came late to the Second Battle of Ueda (a preliminary event to the Battle of Sekigahara) and Hidetada lost to Sanada (Awa-no-kami) Masayuki, an appeal was made to Ieyasu to have the battalion commander, Honda Masanobu, commit seppuku to take responsibility for the defeat. For a father to have his son commit seppuku for his own misdeed is an inexcusably wicked act so, eventually, he will be the subject of divine punishment.” Just as Naotsugu predicted, before long, Masazumi was removed from his position in connection with the Suspended Ceiling Incident at Utsunomiya Castle.
When a young Yorinobu behaved in a rough manner, Naotsugu physically disciplined him so that scars remained on his thighs. Years later, when a doctor attempted to heal these marks, Yorinobu said “I am the person I am today because Naotsugu disciplined me in my youth and these scars remind me of that time” whereupon he rejected treatment.