Anayama Nobutomo

穴山信友

Anayama Clan

Anayama Nobutomo

Kai Province

Lifespan:  Eishō 3 (1506) to 12/16 of Eiroku 3 (1561)

Rank:  bushō

Title: Governor of Izu

Clan:  Anayama

Father:  Anayama Nobukaze

Mother:  Naitō clan (consort)

Siblings:  Nobutomo, 角雲 Genrin

Wife:  Second daughter of Takeda Nobutora (Nanshōin), [Consort] 理性禅定尼

Children:  Nobutada, Nobuyoshi, Hikokurō

Anayama Nobutomo served as a bushō and retainer of the Takeda clan, the military governors of Kai Province.  The Anayama were relatives of the Takeda, and kokujin in the Kawachi area of southern Kai.  Strained relations with other powerful clans in Kai and in the region including the Imagawa of Suruga and the Hōjō of Sagami gave rise to discord within the Takeda clan.  In 1507, Takeda Nobutsuna, the seventeenth head of the clan and a sengoku daimyō, died, after which his eldest son, Takeda Nobutora, became the new head.  This caused a dispute with Nobutora’s uncle, Aburakawa Nobuyoshi.  Anayama Nobutō, head of the Anayama clan, had reverted to the Imagawa and opposed Nobutsuna, but after Nobutora came to power, Nobutō reconciled with the core of the Takeda clan and maintained friendly relations.

Meanwhile, some within the Anayama clan opposed Nobutō, desiring to reconcile with the Imagawa of Suruga who were enemies of the Takeda.  In 1513, Nobutō was assassinated by his lineal heir, Anayama Seigorō.  Nobutomo was born in 1506, and his father, Anayama Nobukaze, succeeded to the clan after the death of Nobutō until his subsequent death in 1531.  On the same day of his passing, a conflict between Nobutora and the kunishū of Kai against the Suwa clan of Shinano erupted, with Nobutora crushing the allied forces comprised of the Imai, Kurihara, Obu, and Suwa in the western portion of Kawara in an event known as the Battle of Kawara District.  The ensuing victory solidified Nobutora’s position in Kai Province. Nobukaze’s genealogy is complicated, and there is no record of Nobutomo (his son) or Nobutada (his grandson), holding memorial services in his name.  The fact that the attack occurred on the same day as his passing suggests that the surviving members of the Anayama clan were opposed to the Takeda.

Thereafter, Nobutomo succeeded Nobukaze as head of the Anayama, and the Anayama reverted to supporting the central Takeda clan.  However, animosity between the Takeda and the Imagawa intensified in 1535, with their armies clashing in the home district of the Manzawa clan.  The following year, a struggle for succession known as the Hanakura Conflict (Hanakura no ran) arose within the Imagawa clan following the death of their leader, Imagawa Ujiteru.  After becoming the new head of the clan, Imagawa Yoshimoto settled differences with the Takeda and formed an alliance supported by interlocking marriages.  The Imagawa arranged for Sanjō-no-kata, the daughter of a kugyō in Kyōtō named Sanjō Kinyori, to wed Nobutora’s eldest son, Harunobu (later Shingen) within months after his coming-of-age ceremony.  In 1537, Nobutora’s daughter was married to Yoshimoto.  For each event, the Anayama facilitated safe passage of the bridal processions through the Kawachi area of Kai.  Around the time of Nobutada’s birth in 1541, Nobutomo himself wed Nobutora’s daughter, Nanshōin-dono.  Given that the Anayama were relatives of the Takeda family, the marriage served to strengthen bonds with the central Takeda clan.

In 1541, Takeda Shingen banished Nobutora, who traveled through Kawachi and was transferred to the Imagawa of Suruga.  Upon taking over as head of the clan, Shingen launched an invasion of Shinano.  In 1545, Nobutomo participated in an attack by Shingen against Fujisawa Yorichika, lord of Fukuyo Castle in the Ina District of Shinano, who was allied with Ogasawara Nagatoki, the military governor of Shinano.  The castle fell to the Takeda and Nobutomo joined Oyamada Nobuari, a powerful kokujin from the Gunnai region of eastern Kai, along with Katsunuma Nobutomo, Shingen’s uncle, to capture Yorichika’s younger brother, Gonjirō, as a hostage.  In 1549, Nobutomo had Gonjirō serve Shingen, so the Fujisawa clan may have been subservient to the Anayama clan.

According to certain chronicles, Nobutomo joined the battles of Hirasawa, Un-no-taira, Usuitōge, Kawanakajima, and Shiojiritōge, but Shingen’s younger brother, Takeda Nobushige, served as commanding general for the invasion of Shinano Province, while Nobutomo led a separate battalion.  Historical records do not confirm Nobutomo’s participation in battle except for Kawanakajima and Shiojiritōge. References to the Anayama in military chronicles are limited during this period but become prominent in the era of his son, Nobutada.

Prior to the entry into Kawachi by the Anayama, the Nanbu clan maintained a home base in the Minami District near the border between Kai and Suruga provinces. In 1547, the clan moved from the traditional center of Kawachi in the Minami District to the Shimoyama residence in the northern part of the territory and built a town below.

After becoming subordinate to the Takeda clan, Nobutomo maintained diplomatic channels with the Imagawa, and, in 1547, joined Yoshimoto in donating long swords to the Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha, a major Shintō shrine.  Yoshimoto further granted to Nobutomo the Inaba manor located in the former territory of a kugyō named Ōgimachi-sanjō Sanemochi, who was a house guest of the Imagawa.  This may have been to show gratitude for the role played by the Anayama in arranging marriages between the Takeda and the Imagawa.  Funding was also provided for restoration work on Buddhist texts kept at the Nanshō Temple in Shimoyama attended by followers of the Rinzai sect of Buddhism.

In 1554, Takeda Shingen, Hōjō Ujiyasu, and Imagawa Yoshimoto entered into a peace accord known as the Kōsōsun-sangoku dōmei, or the Alliance between the Three Provinces of Kai, Sagami, and Suruga.  This created a diplomatic means to settle differences between these powerful sengoku daimyō, to preserve their borders, to attack Shinano, and to serve as a joint defense to counter the ambitions of daimyō from other provinces, such as Uesugi Kenshin from Echigo Province.  In 1552, Nobutomo and Komai Kōhakusai (a senior retainer of Shingen) arranged for the marriage of Yoshimoto’s daughter with Takeda Yoshinobu (Shingen’s eldest son) in Sunpu, and the bridal procession for Yoshimoto’s daughter traveled through Kawachi later that year, visiting the Anayama residence en route to Tsutsujigasaki Palace in Kōfu.

Nobutomo retired in 1558, and his third son died the following year.  Nobutomo continued diplomacy with the Imagawa.  In 1560, after Yoshimoto was killed by Oda forces in the Battle of Okehazama, Nobutomo ensured continuation of the alliance following Imagawa Ujizane’s succession as head of the Imagawa clan.  Nobutomo died later that year and Ujizane sent condolences to his eldest son, Nobutada.