Anayama Nobutada

穴山信君

Anayama Clan

Kai Province

Anayama Nobutada

Lifespan:  Tenbun 10 (1541) to 6/2 of Tenshō 10 (1582)

Rank:  bushō; seventh head of the Anayama clan

Title:  Governor of Mutsu, Governor of Izu, Chief Diplomat

Clan:  Anayama

Lord:  Takeda Shingen → Takeda Katsuyori → Oda Nobunaga

Father:  Anayama Nobutomo

Mother:  Daughter of Takeda Nobutora (Nanshōin)

Siblings:  Nobutada, Nobuyoshi, Hikokurō

Wife:  Second daughter of Takeda Shingen (Kenshōin)

Children:  Katsuchiyo (Takeda Nobuharu), wife of Takeda Nobuchika, Shimoyama-dono (adopted daughter – daughter of Akiyama Echizen-no-kami, consort of Tokugawa Ieyasu)

Anayama Nobutada served as the seventh head of the Anayama clan, in service of Takeda Shingen and Takeda Katsuyori.  He separated from the Takeda clan after Oda Nobunaga began his conquest of the Takeda domain in Kai Province.  Nobutada was one of the Takeda nijūyonshō, or Twenty-Four Generals of the Takeda, as first portrayed in the Edo period.

Nobutada was the eldest son of Anayama Nobutomo.  The Anayama were permitted to use the Takeda surname as relatives of the clan.  Nobutomo and Nobutada married into the head family of the Takeda, and are regarded as having a close familial association.  Nobutomo ruled territory in Kawachi from the Shiroyama residence.  The administrative and personnel organizations in Kawachi operated autonomously from the Takeda clan.  In 1553, Nobutada moved to the Kōfu residence, possibly as a hostage of the Takeda.  During the latter half of 1558, Nobutomo retired from the residence and to enter the priesthood, by which Nobutada became head of the clan.

Actions while serving Takeda Shingen and Takeda Katsuyori

In 1561, Nobutada protected Shingen’s headquarters during the Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima.  Around 1564, while still in the prime of his life, Nobutada shaved his head and assumed the name of Baisetsu Fuhaku.  In 1565, Shingen’s eldest son, Yoshinobu, rebelled in an event known as the Yoshinobu Incident, after which close associates of Yoshinobu, including Sone Suō and Obu Toramasa, were forced to commit seppuku.  There are also records of Yoshinobu, along with retainers from the Sone clan, making a ritual offering of long swords to the Miwa Shrine in Ninomiya in Kai Province after the rebellion.   Prior to the rebellion, Yoshinobu maintained an alliance across three provinces, whereupon the Takeda rejected a further alliance between Yoshinobu and the Imagawa.  In 1566, Nobutada’s younger brother, Anayama Nobuyoshi, killed himself, which act may have been instigated by the rebellion.  While the position of Nobutada with respect to this act is unclear, this was further evidence of discord within the Anayama clan.

In the latter period of Shingen’s rule, the Takeda invaded the provinces of Suruga and Tōtōmi, confronting the allied forces of the Oda and Tokugawa.  When the Takeda entered Suruga in 1568, Nobutada attempted to collude by serving as a go-between for retainers of the Imagawa and the Tokugawa clan.  In 1569, he joined with Katsurayama Ujimoto to attack the Fuij clan at Ōmiya Castle.  Thereafter, the Gohōjō of Sagami and the Tokugawa of Mikawa dispatched troops to support the Imagawa against the Takeda’s occupation of Sunpu, whereupon the Takeda temporarily retreated to Kai.  At this time, Nobutada sheltered in Yokoyama Castle in Okitsu in Suruga Province, and endeavored to rule the area by appointing retainers from the Manzawa  and Mochizuki clans to manage local territories.

Following a second invasion, the Takeda asserted control over the province of Suruga.  Nobutada succeeded Yamagata Masakage to become the lord of Ejiri Castle and governed the Ejiri domain in Suruga.  During the Battle of Nagashino in 1575 against the allied forces of the Oda and Tokugawa, Nobutada took a position in the center of the lineup together with Takeda Nobutoyo and Obata Nobusada.  Many senior retainers of the Takeda died in the battle, but there is no record of the role played by Nobutada and the Anayama forces, many of whom safely returned.  According to one account, Nobutada did not actively participate in the action, and was opposed to the battle.

Having lost the Battle of Nagashino, Takeda Katsuyori fled to Shinano Province to re-group, and then returned to Kōfu.  Upon receiving news of the defeat, Kōsaku Masanobu, also known as Kasuga Toratsuna, one of the twenty-four generals of the Takeda and lord of Kaizu Castle (later Matsujiro Castle) in northern Shinano, went to Komaba to meet Katsuyori and to make five proposals.  These included recommendations such as to strengthen the alliance between the Takeda and the Gohōjō through marriage, to give patronage to the youthful and promising retainers who died in the battle, and, finally, to order that Takeda Nobutoyo and Anayama Nobutada commit seppuku.  With the exception of the proposal to strengthen ties with the Gohōjō, Katsuyori rejected the others.

Decimation of the Takeda and a violent ending

Nobutada disliked certain favored retainers of Katsuyori including Nagasaka Mitsukata and Atobe Katsusuke.  In 1581, he began to collude with Oda Nobunaga.  According to one account, several months later, Nobutada became upset after Katsuyori broke a promise to have his daughter marry Nobutada’s eldest son, and, instead to have her marry the son of Takeda Nobutoyo.  He then surrendered to Tokugawa Ieyasu.  In 1582, upon Oda Nobutada’s invasion of Kai, Nobutada released hostages in Kōfu. Upon the invitation of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Nobutada agreed to secretly cooperate with Nobunaga upon the condition that he would become successor to the Takeda clan and govern all of Kai.  As a result, Nobutada became a loyal kunishū to the Oda for the Kawachi area of Kai and the Ejiri area of Suruga under the ultimate control of the Oda.  Nobutada was further assigned as a yoriki, or security officer, under Tokugawa Ieyasu.

In 1582, Nobutada accompanied Ieyasu on a sojourn to pay homage to Nobunaga, meeting him in Azuchi in Ōmi Province.  After passing through Sakai, and while heading toward Kyōto, Nobutada learned that Nobunaga had died in a coup by Akechi Mitsuhide, an event known as the Honnō Temple Incident.  Upon attempting to flee the Kinai, Nobutada died after an attack by adherents of the Ikkō sect of the Hongan Temple who had engaged in a longstanding conflict with Nobunaga.  According to the Shinchō kōki, he committed seppuku.  Based on other sources, he was killed in a furious attack by the Ikkō warrior monks, or, alternatively, he decided to travel separately from Ieyasu, and after being mistaken by the Ikkō warrior monks, Nobutada and some of his retainers were killed in Ujitawara, a town located in the Tsuzuki District of Kyōto.  Meanwhile, Ieyasu narrowly escaped via an alternate route to Mikawa Province.

Following Nobutada’s demise, his eldest son, Anayama Katsuchiyo, also known as Takeda Nobuharu, became head of the Takeda clan.  In 1582, as the Tenshō Jingo Conflict unfolded across a broad area covering Kai, Shinano, and Kōzuke provinces.  For over four months, this conflict pitted 10,000 troops under Tokugawa Ieyasu, with support from the Anayama and other retainers of the Takeda, against a contingent of over 50,000 men under the command of Hōjō Ujinao.  In 1587, Katsuchiyo died, resulting in the end of the Takeda as an influential clan. Meanwhile, prior to his demise, Nobutada had sent Shimoyama-dono, his daughter adopted from the Akiyama, to serve Ieyasu, and she later gave birth to Takeda Nobuyoshi to inherit the remnants of the Takeda clan.  In 1590, Nobuyoshi reverted to the Matsudaira clan after being assigned Kogane Castle and a fief of 30,000 koku in Shimōsa Province.