Akutagawa Magojūrō served as a bushō during the Sengoku period. Magojūrō was lord of Akutagawayama Castle on Mount Miyoshi near Takase in Settsu Province.
As a member of the Miyoshi clan, Magojūrō was the son of Akutagawa Nagamitsu. He may have wed the daughter of Miyoshi Motonaga (an older cousin), but it is not certain.
On 9/18 of 1546, after Hosokawa Ujitsuna and Yusa Naganori launched a rebellion and began to attack various castles in Settsu, Magojūrō joined other provincial families and surrendered, losing Akutagawayama Castle to Yakushiji Motofusa. On 6/25 of 1547, however, after a counterattack led by Miyoshi Nagayoshi and his lord, Hosokawa Harumoto, Motofusa surrendered in turn, allowing for the return of Akutagawayama to Magojūrō. In 1548, when Nagayoshi rebelled against Harumoto and Miyoshi Masanaga, Magojūrō aligned with Nagayoshi and imposed a blockade on the border area between Settsu and Yamashiro provinces, impeding a march by the combined forces of Harumoto and Masanaga. In 1549, he contributed to victory at the Battle of Eguchi.
In the fourth month of 1552, when Nagayoshi made an expedition to Tanba Province, Magojūrō colluded with Hatano Harumichi from Harumoto’s faction and betrayed Nagayoshi. Although he returned for a while to the service of Nagayoshi, in the seventh month of 1553, Magojūrō joined with Ashikaga Yoshifuji (later known as Yoshiteru) and coordinated with Harumoto in a second rebellion, launching a pincer attack against Nagayoshi from the east and west. Nagayoshi, however, immediately surrounded Akutagawayama Castle whereupon, in the eighth month, Yoshifuji and the others suffered defeat and retreated to Sakamoto in Ōmi Province. Isolated, on 8/22, Magojūrō then vacated Akutagawayama and surrendered to Nagayoshi. Through the assistance of Nagayoshi’s younger brother, Miyoshi Jikkyū, Magojūrō departed to Awa Province, but his whereabouts thereafter are unknown. While based at Akutagawayama, Nagayoshi oversaw the peak years of prosperity for the Miyoshi clan.