Saitō Toshitame served as a bushō during the Muromachi period. He was also known as Saemon-no-jō. Toshitame was either the natural son of, or adopted by, Saitō Toshifuji, the deputy military governor of Mino Province. He had a son named Saitō Toshishige.
Toshitame came from a family that served as magistrates for the Toki clan (the military governors of Mino) including Toki Shiegyori and Toki Masafusa. At the Battle of Funada, Toshitame allied with Masafusa and Saitō Myōjun. Saitō Toshifuji, the deputy military governor, lost in this battle and consequently was forced into retirement, after which he adopted Toshitame. Toshitame then became the lord of Sunomata Castle. Later, he built a memorial to his adoptive father at the Myōdai Temple in Sunomata.