Nagaoka Koresue served as a bushō from the Sengoku to early Edo periods.
Koresue’s grandfather, Komeda Motomasa, was a member of the Ochi clan of Yamato Province. He served Ashikaga Yoshiteru, the thirteenth shōgun of the Muromachi bakufu.
Koresue was born as the eldest son of Komeda Koremasa, a retainer of Hosokawa Yūsai. Koremasa served in the Battle of Anegawa and the Battle of Komaki-Nagakute. In 1600, during the Battle of Sekighara, Koremasa served in the Hosokawa division of the Eastern Army and was killed in action during an assault against Oda Hidenobu at Gifu Castle.
Koresue also served in the Battle of Sekigahara and killed enemy forces on Mount Ibuki in Ōmi Province. The following year, in recognition of his contributions during the war, he was given the surname of Nagaoka. In 1614, during the Winter Campaign of the Siege of Ōsaka, Koresue entered Ōsaka Castle and joined a unit commanded by Ōno Harufusa on the side of the Toyotomi. He joined in the Nighttime Attack at Honmachibashi that resulted in the death of Nakamura Shigekatsu and scores of soldiers in the enemy battalion.
In 1615, at the Summer Campaign of the Siege of Ōsaka, Koresue participated in the Battle of Kashii which ended in defeat to Asano Nagaakira. Afterwards, Koresue criticized Okabe Noritsuna for abandoning Ban Danemon (Naoyuki) and left Harufusa’s unit. During the fall of Ōsaka Castle, Koresue fled to Kyōto and lived in confinement.