Anayama Katsuchiyo

穴山勝千代

Anayama Clan

Kai Province

Anayama Katsuchiyo

Lifespan:  Genki 3 (1572) to 6/7 of Tenshō 15 (1587)

Other Names:  Nobuharu (?)

Rank:  bushi

Clan:  Anayama, Kai-Takeda

Lord:  Tokugawa Ieyasu

Father:  Anayama Nobutada

Mother:  Kensōin (daughter of Takeda Shingen)

Siblings:  Katsuchiyo, sister (wife of Unno Nobuchika)

Adopted Siblings:  Shimoyama-dono (consort of Tokugawa Ieyasu)

Anayama Katsuchiyo served as a bushi during the Azuchi-Momoyama period.  He was a grandchild from a daughter married into another family of Takeda Shingen.  He served as the lord of the Anayama and Kai-Takeda clans.

Origins

The Anayama clan were kokujin, or provincial landowners, governing the Kōchi territory in the southern portion of Kai Province.  The Anayama affiliated with the Imagawa clan of Suruga Province in opposition to the Takeda clan, but in the era of Katsuchiyo’s grandfather, Anayama Nobutomo, the Anayama submitted to the Takeda clan.  Nobutomo and Katsuchiyo’s father, Anayama Nobutada, became members of the Takeda family.  Over the three generations spanning from Nobutomo to Katsuchiyo, the Anayama issued many documents in the Kōchi territory reflecting the governance of the area.  In 1568, accompanying the Invasion of Suruga by the Takeda, Nobutada held the Ejiri territory in Suruga in addition to the Kōchi territory in Kai.  The Ejiri territory marked the front line of the Takeda against the allied forces of the Oda and Tokugawa.

Profile

In 1572, Katsuchiyo was born as the lineal heir of Anayama Nobutada at the Shimoyama mansion.  The portrait of Katsuchiyo kept at the Saion Temple has a tribute from the abbot of the Enzō Temple stating that Katsuchiyo acquired a broad education from an early age and was raised to become the successor of Nobutada.

From the second to twelfth months of 1579, three licenses were issued under the name of Nobuharu.  At this time, Katsuchiyo was still in his youth so it is surmised that Nobutada continued to control the clan during this period.  According to one account, Nobutada entered the priesthood and transferred the headship of the clan to Katsuchiyo in 1580.

Nobutada’s defection from the Takeda 

Nobutada disliked certain favored retainers of Katsuyori including Nagasaka Mitsukata and Atobe Katsusuke.  In 1581, he began to collude with Oda Nobunaga.  According to one account, several months later, Nobutada became upset after Katsuyori broke a promise to have his daughter marry Nobutada’s eldest son, and, instead to have her marry the son of Takeda Nobutoyo.  He then surrendered to Tokugawa Ieyasu.  In 1582, upon Oda Nobutada’s invasion of Kai, Nobutada released hostages in Kōfu. Upon the invitation of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Nobutada agreed to secretly cooperate with Nobunaga upon the condition that he would become successor to the Takeda clan and govern all of Kai.  As a result, Nobutada became a loyal kunishū to the Oda for the Kōchi area of Kai and the Ejiri area of Suruga under the ultimate control of the Oda.  Nobutada was further assigned as a yoriki, or security officer, under Tokugawa Ieyasu.

In 1582, Nobutada accompanied Ieyasu on a sojourn to pay homage to Nobunaga, meeting him in Azuchi in Ōmi Province.  After passing through Sakai, and while heading toward Kyōto, Nobutada learned that Nobunaga had died in a coup d’état by Akechi Mitsuhide, an event known as the Honnō Temple Incident.  Upon attempting to flee the Kinai, Nobutada died after an attack by adherents of the Ikkō sect of the Hongan Temple who had engaged in a longstanding conflict with Nobunaga.  According to the Shinchō kōki, he committed seppuku.  Based on other sources, he was killed in a furious attack by the Ikkō warrior monks, or, alternatively, he decided to travel separately from Ieyasu, and after being mistaken by the Ikkō warrior monks, Nobutada and some of his retainers were killed in Ujitawara, a town located in the Tsuzuki District of Kyōto.  In any event, owing to the death of Nobutada, Katsuchiyo formally became the head of the Anayama clan.

Meanwhile, after narrowly escaping via an alternate route to Mikawa, Ieyasu dispatched Okabe Masatsuna to govern the Kawachi territory in Kai.  The Anayama thereby became subordinate to the Tokugawa clan.  From the sixth month to 10/29 of Tenshō 10 (1582), the Tokugawa battled against the Gohōjō clan for control of the former territory of the Takeda clan in Kai, Shinano, and Kōzuke.  This is known as the Tenshō Jingo Conflict.  As an outcome of this war, the Tokugawa garnered control of Kai and Shinano provinces including the location of the Anayama in the Kawachi territory.  The retainers of the Anayama then endeavored to pacify the former retainers of the Takeda.

In the course of the Tenshō Jingo Conflict, in the eighth month of 1582, Katsuchiyo received recognition from Ieyasu of his rights to his landholdings in the Kōchi and Ejiri territories, in addition to Suruga-Yamanishi and Katō-Sudo.  Honda Shigetsugu, Matsudaira Ietada, and Amano Yasukage were stationed at Ejiri Castle and Suganuma Sadamasa to the Kōchi territory so the governing authority was already usurped.  Out of 23 documents from the period of Katsuchiyo, the majority concern rights to landholdings from the period of governance by Nobutada, reflecting efforts by Ieyasu to stabilize Kai.

Five years after the death of Nobutada, in 1587, Katsuchiyo died from smallpox.  Having died without an heir, the lineage of the Anayama clan came to an end.  Thereafter, Ieyasu had his fifth son, Nobuyoshi (known as Takeda Nobuyoshi), inherit the vestiges of the Anayama family.  His grave is at the Saion Temple.  A portrait of Katsuchiyo kept there is designated a cultural asset of Yamanashi Prefecture.