First Expedition: Chōkyō 1 to 3 (the ninth month of 1487 to the third month of 1489)
Second Expedition: Entoku 3 (the eighth to twelfth months of 1491)
Location: Kōga District of Ōmi Province
Neither expedition achieved the key objective to eliminate Rokkaku Yukitaka of Ōmi.
In the first expedition, led by Ashikaga Yoshihisa, the bakufu forces based in Magari departed after Yoshihisa became ill and died in the camp without consequence for Yukitaka.
In the second expedition, led by Ashikaga Yoshiki, the bakufu forces defeated a contingent of 4,000 Rokkaku troops (not including Yukitaka) and returned to Kyōto, but Yoshiki was ousted from his role as shōgun while away from the capital.
Commanders: Ashikaga Yoshihisa (ninth shōgun); assorted daimyō (see narrative)
Commanders: Ashikaga Yoshiki (tenth shōgun); assorted daimyō (see narrative)
Forces: Over 20,000
The Chōkyō-Entoku Expedition was comprised of two separate military expeditions against Rokkaku Yukitaka (later known as Rokkaku Takayori) of Ōmi Province. The first expedition was led by Ashikaga Yoshihisa (the ninth shōgun of the Muromachi bakufu) in Chōkyō 1 (the ninth month of 1487 to the third month of 1489). The second expedition was led by Ashikaga Yoshiki (the tenth shōgun) in Entoku 3 (1491). For the expeditions, Yoshihisa and Yoshiki each assembled an army comprised of assorted daimyō (or their representatives) along with the bakufu army to engage in battle against Rokkaku Yukitaka, the shugo, or military governor of Ōmi. These expeditions are also known as the Conquest of the Rokkaku. During the first expedition, Yoshihisa’s army established a base in Magari in the Kurita District of Ōmi, so that is known as the Magari Campaign. For the second expedition, Yoshiki’s main base was established at the Kōjō monastery of the Onjō Temple.
Outbreak of hostilities
In 1477, at the conclusion of the Ōnin-Bunmei War, military governors and local clans of influence seized the landholdings of temples and shrines along with the manors of nobles, expanding their bases of power. Rokkaku Yukitaka, the military governor of Ōmi who was affiliated with the former western army, expropriated the land of the hōkōshū, or military representatives of the bakufu, in addition to manors located in Ōmi. However, in the seventh month of 1487, a claim by Isshiki Masatomo, a member of the hōkōshū, brought a claim to the bakufu. This action caused other members of the hōkōshū in Ōmi to bring claims against Yukitaka. Moreover, after discovering other seizures of the landholdings of the temples and shrines, the bakufu raised an army for an expedition to Ōmi to eliminate the Rokkaku and restore its authority in the province.
The first conquest of the Rokkaku (the Magari Campaign)
In the eleventh month of 1479, Ashikaga Yoshihisa (the ninth shōgun) held a ceremony for the use of his seal for the first time. The former shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, was reluctant to transfer authority over political affairs and opposed him. In the fourth month of 1485, following a quarrel between the military and bureaucratic arms of the bakufu, Fuse Hideki was murdered by members of the bakufu military at the Ogawa palace of Yoshihisa. Then, on 9/12 of 1487, Yoshihisa raised an army including Hosokawa Masamoto (the deputy shōgun), shugo daimyō such as Takeda Kuninobu (the military governor of Wakasa Province), members of the bakufu military resident in Kyōto and in Ōmi, and member of the noble class and led a deployment to Sakamoto in Ōmi. At this time, Yoshihisa also brought members of the body of magistrates so that the Magari Campaign included political components of the bakufu. Nevertheless, among the magistrates, certain senior retainers of Yoshihisa such as Ise Sadamune, Ino-o Mototsura, and Matsuda Kazuhide were not allowed to deploy, and excluded from political affairs. In response to the expedition, Rokkaku Yukitaka abandoned Kannonji Castle and withdrew. However, he launched guerilla attacks in the mountainous areas of the Kōka District, and the battle entered into a stalemate.
In the sixth month of 1488, Togashi Masachika, the military governor of Kaga Province, returned to his home province on account of intensifying attacks by the Ikkō-ikki band of religious followers in Kaga, whereupon he was killed by Ikkō-ikki forces. Yoshihisa expressed an intention to eliminate the Hongan Temple and Ikkō-ikki forces, but abandoned the plan owing to opposition from this deputy, Hosokawa Masamoto, on account of the expedition against the Rokkaku. That same year, Yoshihisa appointed one of his senior retainers, Yūki Hisatoyo, to serve as the military governor of Ōmi. Yoshihisa ordered various daimyō to come to Kyōto, but many were concerned about this campaign and sent their sons or retainers in lieu of themselves. While Asakura Sadakage, the military governor of Echizen, remained in Echizen, he dispatched a family member, Asakura Kagefuyu, as a sign of cooperation. Toki Shigeyori, the military governor of Mino, sent his eldest son, Toki Masafusa. Shigeyori sheltered Ashikaga Yoshimi and Ashikaga Yoshiki (father and son who served as the nominal leaders of the western army) in Kawate Castle in Mino. Asakura Sadakage wed (as his formal wife) the daughter of Saitō Myōjun who held the real power in the Toki family so there was a marriage alliance between the families.
Shiba Yoshihiro, the military governor of Owari, led a large army of 8,000 troops from the Oda clan under Oda Toshisada (from the Yamato-no-kami branch) and Oda Tōhiro (from the Ise-no-kami branch) to participate with the bakufu army. However, when the Asakura clan who governed Echizen came to join, Yoshihiro felt it was a great insult to deploy alongside former retainers, whereupon he appealed to Yoshihisa to recover former territory in Echizen which had earlier been seized by the Asakura clan. This is known as the Chōkyō Appeal. In the course of this argument, the Shiba and the Asakura each asserted the propriety of their governance of Echizen without compromise. Meanwhile, the bakufu did not desire an internal dispute while focusing on the objectives of the campaign so did not give a convincing answer to Yoshihiro. On 2/23, Yoshihiro left the camp on the pretext of an accidental fire.
In addition, senior retainers of Ashikaga Yoshihisa including Yūki Masatane and Yūiki Hisatoyo (brothers), Ōdachi Hisauji, and Nikaidō Masayuki were opposed by the bakufu army, causing the expedition to further bog down.
In the third month of 1489, Yoshihisa became seriously ill, so close retainers escorted him back to Kyōto to recover, while temporarily assigning Ashikaga Yoshimi and Ashikaga Yoshiki (father and son) to take charge of the expedition against the Rokkaku. Yoshimi and Yoshiki consented to the plan, but, just before they departed from Mino on 3/26, Yoshihisa died at the camp in Magari. On 4/14, Yoshimi and Yoshiki went to Kyōto and, on 4/22, moved into the residence of Hino Tomiko (the Ogawa palace). In Ōmi, Yūki Hisatoyo absconded from the camp and the campaign against the Rokkaku was suspended.
Participants from the former eastern army included:
- Hosokawa Masamoto – deputy shōgun. Yoshihisa made a decision to proceed with the first expedition after consulting only with Masamoto.
- Hosokawa Masayuki – military governor of Awa Province. Became ill while on deployment, returned to Kyōto, and died on 2/7 at age thirty-four. His son and successor, Hosokawa Yoshiharu, participated in the second expedition.
- Hatakeyama Masanaga (Hatakeyama-Bishū family) – deputy shōgun.
- Shiba Yoshihiro – military governor of Owari. Traveled to Kyōto with Oda Toshisada and Oda Tōhiro (the deputy military governors from two branches of the Oda clan in Owari). Provided the main force for the expedition.
- Kyōgoku Masatsune – fought against the Rokkaku for many years.
- Togashi Masachika – during the deployment, returned to home province of Kaga to suppress uprisings by the Ikkō-ikki band of religious followers, but was killed in fighting against them.
- Takeda Kuninobu – military governor of Wakasa.
Participants from the former western army included:
- Yamana Masatoyo – sent his eldest son, Yamana Toshitoyo, in the midst of a battle against the Akamatsu clan.
- Isshiki Yoshinao – sent his eldest son, Isshiki Yoshihide.
- Toki Shigeyori – sent his eldest son, Toki Masafusa.
- Ōuchi Masahiro – sent his retainer, Toida Hirotane.
- Asakura Sadakage (switched from the western to eastern army) – sent a family member, Asakura Kagefuyu.
- Members of the bakufu army.
The second conquest of the Rokkaku
On 1/7 of 1490, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, the eighth shōgun, died. On 7/5 of the same year, through the recommendation of his aunt, Hino Tomiko, Ashikaga Yoshiki became the tenth shōgun, and pardoned Rokkaku Yukitaka. However, in the tenth month of the same year, servants of the Rokkaku clan refused to return landholdings seized from temples and shrines in Ōmi.
On 4/21 of 1491, Ashikaga Yoshiki declared that the Rokkaku would be cut down. In the first month of the same year, his father, Ashikaga Yoshimi, died after his mother, Hino Yoshiko, died in the tenth month of 1490. Alienated from his aunt, Hino Tomiko, Yoshiki became isolated in Kyōto and likely needed the strength of the bakufu army for support. A large army gathered in response to the order to deploy.
On 8/27 of 1491, Yoshiki led a large army to set-up a main base at the Kōjō monastery of the Onjō Temple and appointed Akamatsu Masanori and Takeda Motonobu as the generals. He further appointed Hosokawa Masamoto as the military governor of Ōmi and ordered the vanguard. A senior retainer of Masamoto, Yasutomi Motoie, marched west, and, on 10/1, arrived at the Kongō Temple in Ōmi. Rokkaku Yukitaka responded by withdrawing from Kōka and launching a guerilla war. However, owing to the actions of Uragami Norimune (a senior retainer of the Akamatsu) and Oda Toshisada (a senior retainer of the Shiba), a member of the Rokkaku clan named Yamauchi Masatsuna, surrendered. Yoshiki did not permit this, and despite their prior achievements, personally executed both of them with a sword.
In the third month of 1492, Yasutomi Motoie was subject to a surprise attack by the Rokkaku, and fled in defeat from the Kongō Temple. Ashikaga Yoshiki ordered Akamatsu Masanori, Takeda Motonobu, and Shiba Yoshihiro to launch an attack, whereupon Uragami Norimune, Itsumi Danjō, and Oda Toshisada were sent. On 3/29, they converged with Motoie and defeated 4,000 soldiers from the Rokkaku at Yanase-Kawahara. Yoshiki presented Norimune and others with a long sword and letter of commendation. In the fifth month of 1492, Yoshiki appointed Motoie in lieu of Shiba Yoshihiro to the vanguard, and sent him, along with the Akamatsu and Takeda, to Kōga. Moreover, on 10/17, Yoshiki himself deployed and located at the main base at the Kōgon Temple to direct the offensive against the Rokkaku. As a result, the Rokkaku army left Kōga and fled to Ise Province. The Kitabatake army, however, intercepted and annihilated them.
Ashikaga Yoshiki appointed Rokkaku Torachiyo (adopted son of Rokkaku Masataka) in lieu of Hosokawa Masamoto as the military governor, vacated the soldiers and, on 12/14, returned triumphantly to Kyōto.
Participants from the former eastern army included:
- Hosokawa Masamoto – deputy shōgun. He was not supportive of the second expedition and sent his retainer, Yasutomi Motoie. Motoie was appointed as the deputy military governor of Ōmi, but struggled against guerilla attacks by the Rokkaku.
- Hosokawa Yoshiharu – military governor of Awa; younger brother of Hosokawa Masayuki.
- Hatakeyama Hisanobu – the eldest son of Hatakeyama Masanaga.
- Shiba Yoshihiro – military governor of Owari. Traveled to Kyōto with Oda Toshisada and Oda Tōhiro (the deputy military governors from two branches of the Oda clan in Owari). Provided the main force for the expedition. Appealed for the return of Echizen from the Asakura clan.
- Takeda Motonobu – military governor of Wakasa; joined the main force for the expedition.
- Akamatsu Masanori – deployed along with his senior retainer, Uragami Norimune; joined the main force for the expedition.
- Kyōgoku Masatsune – provincial families under his command seized landholdings of the temples and shrines in a similar manner as the Rokkaku, so his nephew, Kyōgoku Takakiyo, later became the head of the clan.
Participants from the former western army included:
- Yamana Masatoyo – he did not travel to Kyōto; his eldest son, Yamana Toshitoyo, deployed.
- Isshiki Yoshinao – did not deploy; conducted inspection of captured heads in lieu of Ashikaga Yoshiki.
- Toki Shigeyori – deployed in the second expedition.
- Ōuchi Masahiro – deployed in the second expedition.
- Members of the bakufu army.
Consequences of the expeditions
Owing to the second expedition, Ashikaga Yoshiki gained confidence, and he began to rely heavily upon Hatakeyama Masanaga of the Hatakeyama-Bishū family and Shiba Yoshihiro. Meanwhile, his relationships with Hosokawa Masamoto and Hino Tomiko became increasingly distant.
In the second month of 1493, Yoshiki listened to the appeal from Hatakeyama Masanaga to eliminate Hatakeyama Yoshitoyo (also known as Motoie) of the Hatakeyama-Bishū family. Yoshiki, together with Masanaga, Hatakeyama Hisanobu (Masanaga’s eldest son), Yusa Naganao (the deputy military governor of Kawachi), and Akamatsu Masanori (the military governor of Harima), in addition to the bakufu army attacked and cornered Yoshitoyo at Takaya Castle in Kawachi. However, Hosokawa Masamoto had conspired behind the scenes with Hino Tomiko, Masanori, and Yoshitoyo to oust Yoshiki and seize control of the bakufu. While Yoshiki was away on the expedition, in the fourth month of 1493, the conspirators ousted him from his role as the shōgun and backed Ashikaga Yoshitaka (later known as Ashikaga Yoshizumi) as the eleventh shōgun in a coup d’état known as the Meiō Political Incident. This event fractured the Ashikaga family and ushered in the turbulent Sengoku period. Upon learning of these developments, the bakufu army surrounding Takaya Castle withdrew its forces and instead attacked the main base of Hatakeyama Masanaga at the Shōgakuji Temple. Later that same month, after enabling Hisanobu to escape, Masanaga and Yusa Naganao killed themselves. When taking his life, it is said he first used a short sword from a maker known as Yagen Tōshirō, but it did not go well, so he used another sword.
Ashikaga Yoshiki was incarcerated, and the bakufu army dismantled, greatly reducing the authority of the bakufu. Meanwhile, Rokkaku Yukitaka took advantage of the chaos to oust Rokkaku Torachiyo and took control of the fight against Yamauchi Naritsuna (the son of Yamauchi Masatsuna) who had been appointed the military governor of Ōmi. In 1495, Yukitaka received a pardon from Ashikaga Yoshitaka, and, further, received one of the characters from Yoshitak’s name, thereafter adopting the name of Rokkaku Takayori. Soon thereafter, Takayori intervened in an internal conflict in Mino to determine the successor to Toku Shigeyori (the military governor) in the Battle of Funada.
In the ninth month of 1496, Saitō Myōjun, who appeared to lean in favor of Yoshiki, invaded Ōmi. Together with Kyōgoku Takakiyo, defeated Kyōgoku Masatsune, but Takayori stopped the invasion, whereupon Myōjun was killed in a local uprising during the retreat.
In the wake of the Eishō Disturbance in 1507 and the restoration of Ashikaga Yoshiki to the position of shōgun in the seventh month of 1511, Rokkaku Takayori was jostled by the instability of the Muromachi bakufu. He sheltered Ashikaga Yoshizumi (the eleventh shōgun) and his son, Ashikaga Yoshiharu while being embroiled in the internal discord of the Hosokawa-Keichō family and competition for the role of shōgun.